Changes in solar flares, prominence and filament eruptions, and the flow of The chromosphere gives off a light called a hydrogen alpha emission, giving it the red color. Chromosphere, lowest layer of the Sun’s atmosphere, several thousand kilometres thick, located above the bright photosphere and below the extremely tenuous corona. The chromosphere is the second, gaseous, outer layer of the atmosphere of the sun. of just a few minutes. The chromosphere gets its name from its color, which is a deep red. The chromosphere may play a role in conducting heat from the interior of the sun to its outermost layer, the corona. The chromosphere (colour sphere), named by the English astronomer Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer in 1868, appears briefly as a bright crescent, red with hydrogen light, during solar eclipses when the body of the Sun is almost obscured by the Moon. Temperatures in the chromosphere range from about 4,500 to 100,000 Kelvins (K), increasing with altitude; the mean temperature is about 6,000 K. Solar prominences are primarily chromospheric phenomena. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The chromosphere is a thin layer, about 2,000 to 3,000 kilometers (1,243 to 1,864 miles) thick. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. When the Sun is viewed through a spectrograph or a filter that isolates Ca II, in the violet part of the solar spectrum at a wavelength of 393.4 nanometers (the Mark Kolbe/Getty Images News/Getty Images, University of Tennessee at Knoxville: The Chromosphere of the Sun, Solar Physics at Montana State University: Solar Filaments and Prominences, Solar Physics at Montana State University: The "Dancing" Layer of the Sun. Prominences and filaments are actually the same things except that prominences are seen projecting out above the limb, or edge, of the Sun. They are held in place by the magnetic field of the sun. They filter out all other wavelengths given off by the sun to observe the chromosphere wavelengths of light. Latest H-alpha images - The upper contains comparatively cool columns of ascending gas known as spicules, having between them hotter gas much like that of the corona, into which the upper chromosphere merges gradually. Pearly white coronal streamers can be seen far beyond the Moon’s dark…, …above the photosphere is the chromosphere, which is observed by the emission of line radiation from various atoms and ions. They are extremely short-lived. These features include the chromospheric network of Helium was discovered through viewing the chromosphere emission lines during a solar eclipse in 1868. Spicules give the chromosphere a jagged appearance. The chromosphere represents the dynamic transition between the cool temperature minimum of the outer photosphere and the diffuse million-degree corona above. The magnetic field lines in the chromosphere apparently become displaced and oscillate when they return to their original shape. When the magnetic field lines cross and bunch, the temperature decreases in that area, creating a darker spot on the chromosphere. The magnetic field of the sun clusters in the supergranules. Supergranules are large bright and dark areas in the chromosphere. Current (up to the minute) images of the sun in H-alpha, Latest images - BBSO Latest The lower chromosphere is more or less homogeneous. The chromosphere is the site of activity as well. Spicules are spikes of plasma that appear in the chromosphere. Corina Fiore is a writer and photographer living in suburban Philadelphia. Calcium K-line). These lines are cooler than the areas directly around them, so they appear darker. This oscillation creates a wave of energy that increases the temperature of the chromosphere with altitude. Its temperature is 6,000 to 50,000 degrees Celsius (10,800 to 90,000 degrees Fahrenheit), increasing with altitude. material in post-flare loops can all be observed over the course Updates? It is directly above the photosphere, which is the layer that humans see from the surface of Earth. The Chromosphere The Transition Region The Corona The Solar Wind ... Prominences are dense clouds of material suspended above the surface of the Sun by loops of magnetic field. The chromosphere is an irregular layer above the photosphere where the temperature rises from 6000°C to about 20,000°C. Then, as the chromosphere vanishes, the corona leaps into view. She earned a B.S.Ed. The photosphere is the region of the Sun that we see. The chromosphere is an irregular layer above the photosphere temperatures hydrogen emits light that gives off a reddish color (H-alpha emission). dark filaments across the disk and prominences above the limb. They are much larger than the granules observed in the photosphere. They are about 480 kilometers (300 miles) in diameter and can rise to over 7,000 kilometers (4,300 miles) high. chromosphere its name (color-sphere). Chromosphere, lowest layer of the Sun’s atmosphere, several thousand kilometres thick, located above the bright photosphere and below the extremely tenuous corona. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The chromosphere is one of the outer layers of the sun.
Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. colorful emission can be seen in prominences that project above the limb of the sun during total solar eclipses.
It is directly above the photosphere, which is the layer that humans see from the surface of Earth. This emission is seen in other solar-type stars where it provides Fiore taught high school science for 7 years and offered several teacher workshops to regarding education techniques. in Earth-Space Science from West Chester University of Pennsylvania. Corrections? Outside the chromosphere, the corona expands into the ever-blowing solar wind (see below), which on passing through the planetary system eventually encounters the interstellar medium. The light it projects is faint compared to the bright light given off by the photosphere. Filaments are long, thin jets of gas in the chromosphere that are extremely dense. She worked as a staff writer for science texts and has been published in Praxis review materials for beginning teachers. The corona can be seen…. magnetic field elements, bright plage around sunspots,
Solar Atmosphere Surface Gas Pressure (top of photosphere): 0.868 mb Pressure at bottom of photosphere (optical depth = 1): 125 mb Effective temperature: 5772 K Temperature at top of photosphere: 4400 K Temperature at bottom of photosphere: 6600 K Temperature at top of chromosphere: ~30,000 K Photosphere thickness: ~500 km Chromosphere thickness: ~2500 km Sun … Most people can only see the chromosphere during a solar eclipse. important information about the chromospheres and activity cycles in those stars. The chromosphere of the Sun observed through a telescope with a filter that isolates the H-alpha emission. Scientists are able to observe the chromosphere using special equipment. the H-alpha emission, a wealth of new features can be seen. At these higher The jets only exist for about 10 minutes and travel at 30 kilometers per second. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/chromosphere, UCAR Center for Science Education - The Sun's Chromosphere. This is what gives the More than 100,000 spicules can be observed at any given time. Chromosphere literally means “sphere of color.” This is the second of the Sun’s three main layers of atmosphere. They appear darker than the areas around them because they do not emit as much red light. The chromosphere gets its name from its color, which is a deep red. It derives its name and pink colour from the red Hα line of hydrogen at 6562.8 angstroms (Å); 1 Å = 10, …prior to this event, the chromosphere, a thin bright red layer in the lower solar atmosphere, appears for a few seconds at the edge of the Sun’s disk.
Spicules occur at the edges of the chromosphere’s magnetic network, which traces areas of enhanced field strength. The chromosphere is one of the outer layers of the sun. At these higher temperatures hydrogen emits light that gives off a reddish color (H-alpha emission). where the temperature rises from 6000°C to about 20,000°C. The chromosphere is relatively thin region of the Sun that’s just above the photosphere. Omissions? The chromosphere can be observed at other times across the face of the Sun in filters that let through the red light of the hydrogen alpha line at 6562.8 angstroms (Å; 1 Å = 10−10 metre). Helium was discovered through viewing the chromosphere emission lines during a solar eclipse in 1868. Scientists speculate that the temperature increases with altitude due to magneto-hydrodynamic waves. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. The chromosphere (colour sphere), named by the English astronomer Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer in 1868, appears briefly as a bright crescent, red with hydrogen light, during solar eclipses when the body of the Sun is almost obscured by … This makes a web of magnetic field lines on the sun. This layer sits just above the photosphere between about 400 km (250 miles) and 2,100 km (1,300 miles) above the solar surface. This Filaments are called prominences when they are observed on the edge of the sun. The chromosphere is also visible in the light emitted by ionized calcium,
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