The events of Project MK ULTRA are cloaked in mystery, as almost all of the records of the project were destroyed in 1973 by Richard Helms, the director of the CIA at the time. MORI ID: 17409, Contractor: George White Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET Location: New York City Years: 1964 ― 1966 CIA Monitors: Ray Treichler and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, MKULTRA Briefing Book – Brief summaries of each of the 149 MKULTRA subprojects, MKULTRA Institutional Notifications (MORI ID: 20476) – Includes MKSEARCH, BLUEBIRD, and ARTICHOKE Institutional Notifications, MKULTRA Document Index (for search terms “mkultra” and “behavioral research”) The Black Vault, The CIA Doctors: Human Rights Violations by American Psychiatrists by Colin A. Ross, Tom A. Hidell Government Conspiracy CIA, MKULTRA. It would be fifteen years after this meeting at the Ritz that Cameron would disastrously pick up where Hebb left off. Once patients’ brains were depatterned, Cameron believed that they would be able to be re-taught proper forms of interaction and behaviour. This project was cancelled before it got underway and monies authorized were transferred to Sub-Project 91. The depatterning was meant to break down the patient’s personality completely in order to rebuild it from scratch. Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Years: 1963 ― 1964 CIA Monitor: Ray Treichler, MKULTRA Subproject 148: To provide a mechanism to utilize the services of BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, a recognized authority in the field of toxicology and pharmacology in support of Technical Services Division activity concerned with influencing animal and human behavior. Unsurprisingly, university presidents have not been eager to disclose or discuss this information publicly, as it represents dark and troubling parts of their institutions’ histories. Possibly Dr. Klare G Toman – HEF-Handwriting Psycholexicon-Graphology (?) Following 9/11, the war on terror and the generalized fearmongering that ensued, the Bush administration changed the rules of the game out of concern for homeland security.

“The Belmont Report outlined the basic principles for ethics review for the Ethics Boards:   Respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. “The importance of preserving the independence of our research areas and the communities seems to me to be a very fundamental kind of question about the protection of the integrity of our universities,” Senator Edward Kennedy said at the hearing. During the hearings, these members admitted to the purpose of the project, as well as the unethical nature of several of the experiments. Although the norms of experimentation and research were different during the time that Cameron was undertaking these treatments, there is evidence that he was aware of the immoral nature of his actions. Senators at the joint hearing on Project MK ULTRA in 1977 discussed the role of universities in housing the research for the project, and what implications this would have on their reputations and those of the researchers involved. The committee concluded that the information incriminating the universities would be widely circulated in the media, and that the universities should be given the adequate information to know the truth about what was being reported. MKULTRA Subproject 135: Research program involving the clinical testing of biologically active materials, which could be administered transdermally (through the skin) using human volunteer subjects.

“The patient may [also] show [...] loss of a second language or all knowledge of his marital status.”. Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Contractor’s Clearance: Unwitting Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Years: 1961 CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Cover/Cut-out: Medical Sciences Research Foundation, MKULTRA Subproject 136: ESP Research – Experimental analysis of extrasensory perception. Dr. Donald Ewen Cameron was the head of McGill’s Allan Memorial Institute when the experiments were performed, and the main researcher implicated in the project. Standards for ethical research during the 1950s and 60s were not nearly as stringent as they are today. The CIA began to believe that foreign powers possessed methods of mind control that had allowed them to brainwash American prisoners of war. Many of the accusations put forward at the trials involved allegations of unethical research on unconsenting subjects within the camps. McGill’s archives provide no mention of Cameron’s involvement in Project MK ULTRA, instead focusing simply on his “high reputation in the psychiatric field.”. However, they concluded that scientists who had unwittingly taken part in MK ULTRA research should be informed of this fact. According to the Canadian government, approximately 80 patients at the Allan Memorial Institute underwent depatterning. Students suddenly became very tolerant of the ideas that they had readily dismissed before. The treatment involved putting patients into a prolonged period of sleep for several days through the administration of barbiturates (drugs that depress the central nervous system) and LSD. Dr. Hebb paid a group of his own psychology students to remain isolated in a room, deprived of all senses, for an entire day.

“He was an authoritarian, ruthless, power hungry, nervous, tense, angry [...] not very nice,” Dr. Elliot Emmanuel, one of Cameron’s former colleagues, said of the doctor in a 1980 interview with CBC. Project MK ULTRA was a large-scale attempt by the CIA to research behavioural modification and the effects of certain drugs and psychological treatments on the human mind.

In order to conceal the source of money, the CIA created research foundations, such as the Human Ecology Fund, to act as fronts for funnelling MK ULTRA research funds. But patients were not always prepared for re-patterning and sometimes Cameron used extreme forms of sensory deprivation as well…. MORI ID: 17406, Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET Location: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Years: 1963 ― 1954 CIA Monitors: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Sidney Gottlieb, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, MKULTRA Subproject 147: Cross-tolerance between psychomimetic drug. The project began as an attempt by the US to devise mind control and interrogation techniques following the Korean War. The purpose of the meeting was to launch a joint American-British-Canadian effort led by the CIA to fund studies on sensory deprivation. Patients would typically be sedated with muscular paralytic drugs during this process, and they could be exposed to hundreds of thousands of repetitions of a single statement throughout the treatment. MKULTRA Subproject 142: Biological studies involving electrical brain stimulation of cold-blooded animals. MORI ID: 17401, Contractor:Dr. Geschickter Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET Location: Washington, D.C. Years: 1962 CIA Monitor: Ray Treichler Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund. Following settlements by the US, as well as impetus by the public to acknowledge the harms done,  the Canadian government finally agreed to provide compensation on compassionate and humanitarian grounds beginning in the late 1980s.

MORI ID: 17400, Contractor: James Hamilton Contractor’s Clearance: TOP SECRET Location: St. Francis Memorial Hospital, San Francisco Years: 1962 ― 1965 CIA Monitors: Ray Treichler, BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund, MKULTRA Subproject 141: Not specified. Senators and ex-members of the CIA disagreed on whether or not presidents of the implicated universities should be prompted to publicly disclose the truth regarding their involvement in the project. These “learned responses” created “brain pathways” that led to repetitive abnormal behaviour. The committee present at the hearing ultimately decided that the presidents of all of the universities involved should be informed, and that it would then be up to them to disclose the information to the public or not. Even in the 1950s and ’60s, when the experiments were conducted, the practices utilized by Cameron were extreme. Since then, even more standards have been put in place governing research on human subjects. Cameron’s administration of electroshock to patients multiple times a day over long periods of time, however, was undoubtedly outside of the norm.

Out of the research and experiments that were undertaken within hospitals and laboratories, those that took place at McGill, known as MK ULTRA subproject 68, were perhaps the most notorious. Only decades later, in the 1980s, did past victims speak about their experiences, and by the nineties, the lawsuits began to pile up. With regards to the universities, the senators from the 1977 hearing decided that presidents of all the universities involved should be notified of their involvement in the project in order to take the appropriate steps to adapt research procedures and ensure that such events did not recur in the future.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) mind control project used unconsenting patients to test the effects of sensory deprivation, LSD, electroshock therapy, and other methods of controlling the human psyche. He alternated negative messages about the patients’ lives and personalities with positive ones; these messages could be repeated up to half a million times…. For the CIA, Cameron’s research was potentially the answer they had been looking for. “I would certainly hope that [the universities] would feel that they could make a public statement on it.”. Several patients filed lawsuits against the Canadian government to receive compensation for the harms that were inflicted by the procedures. Despite the shrouded nature of the project and the hazy details surrounding it, it is certain that unethical experiments were performed at many institutions, including McGill University. In attendance was Dr. Donald Hebb, then director of psychology at McGill University, who received a grant of $10,000 to study sensory deprivation.

In response, the Canadian government launched “The Allan Memorial Institute Depatterned Persons Assistance Plan,” which provided $100,000 to each of the former patients of Dr. Ewen Cameron. The sinister stone building, said to be haunted, is befitting of the grisly experiment that occurred within its walls from 1957 to 1964: Project MK ULTRA. To evaluate the possibility of using extrasensory perception in the intelligence field. A study was made of sugar cane crop vulnerabilities, on a world-wide basis.

Although it may sound like something out of a dystopian sci-fi novel, these experiments were conducted at McGill, with devastating effects on the patients involved. Cameron’s experiments, known as MK-ULTRA subproject 68, were partially funded by the CIA and the Canadian government, and are widely known for their use of LSD, barbiturates, and amphetamines on patients. Many recounted extreme memory loss, feelings of isolation, anxiety, and no improvement of their initial conditions. There are bleak aspects of McGill’s history. Abuses of power, combined with changing social contexts and ethical standards, have grown over time into nightmarish stories of our university’s past. The experiments within each subproject varied in both their purpose and techniques—but many, including those undertaken at McGill, involved invasive and unethical research on unwitting human subjects. Dr. Cameron wanted to de-pattern patients’ minds with the application of highly disruptive electroshock twice a day, as opposed to the norm of three times a week. It consisted of 144 different subprojects related to the control of human behaviour, which were carried out in 89 different institutions, including universities. “Some of the uses proposed for these particular animals would involve possible delivery systems for BW/CW agents or for direct executive action-type operations as distinguished from the eavesdropping application.

Only by acknowledging and discussing past wrongdoings will we be able to reconcile and learn from these mistakes. (BW/CW) MORI ID: 17398, Contractor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Contractor’s Clearance: Cleared (not specified) Location: Pennsylvania State University Years: 1961 ― 1965 CIA Monitor: BLACKEBLACKEDOUT, Ray Treichler, and BLACKEBLACKEDOUT Cover/Cut-out: Geschickter Fund, Medical Science Research Foundation, MKULTRA Subproject 140: (See 2 and 124) Under cover of “Thyroid Research” the project was to design and conduct controlled experiments involving pharmacological and clinical tests on human volunteers.

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